Unobtrusive respiratory flow monitoring using a thermopile array: a feasibility study

Ilde Lorato (Corresponding author), Tom Bakkes, Sander Stuijk, Mohammed Meftah, Gerard de Haan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
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Low-resolution thermal cameras have already been used in the detection of respiratory flow. However, microbolometer technology has a high production cost compared to thermopile arrays. In this work, the feasibility of using a thermopile array to detect respiratory flow has been investigated in multiple settings. To prove the concept, we tested the detector on six healthy subjects. Our method automatically selects the region-of-interest by discriminating between sensor elements that output noise and flow-induced signals. The thermopile array yielded an average root mean squared error of 1.59 breaths per minute. Parameters such as distance, breathing rate, orientation, and oral or nasal breathing resulted in being fundamental in the detection of respiratory flow. The paper provides the proof-of-concept that low-cost thermopile-arrays can be used to monitor respiratory flow in a lab setting and without the need for facial landmark detection. Further development could provide a more attractive alternative for the earlier bolometer-based proposals.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2449
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2019


  • Camera
  • Distance
  • Health
  • Remote
  • Respiration
  • Thermal
  • Thermopile
  • Unobtrusive


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