This article investigates the material integration in the Netherlands. Section 1 maps the proliferation of network technologies during the last two centuries. Sections 2 and 3 scrutinize the complex dynamics of network development for selected cases. The case of the electricity supply network reveals how institutional frameworks stabilized network development despite conflicts and contingencies, and how competing (gas supply) networks affected network development. The cases of the Rotterdam harbour, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and the city address innovation and professonalization processes at the level of network nodes, which tie different networks together and heavily affect overall network morphologies and flows. Section 4 addresses the 'vulnerability paradox' as a specific characteristic of the networked nation.