Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways

F.W. Geels, J.W. Schot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2126 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


Contributing to debates about transitions and system changes, this article has two aims. First, it uses criticisms on the multi-level perspective as stepping stones for further conceptual refinements. Second, it develops a typology of four transition pathways: transformation, reconfiguration, technological substitution, and de-alignment and re-alignment. These pathways differ in combinations of timing and nature of multi-level interactions. They are illustrated with historical examples.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-417
Number of pages18
JournalResearch Policy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007


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