Objective: Social behavior (e.g., loneliness, isolation) has been indicated as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies show that Type D personality might be an important predictor of social behavior. Hence, the current exploratory study aims to examine, using ecological assessment, whether Type D personality is associated with a lower likelihood to engage in social encounters in patients with cardiovascular disease. Method: Cardiac patients who participated in the Do CHANGE (Phase 2) trial were included in current analysis. As part of the Do CHANGE intervention, real-life data were collected in the intervention group using the MOVES app, which was installed on patients' mobile phones. For a period of 6 months, Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the participating patients were collected. From the GPS data, 3 target variables were computed: (a) general activity level, (b) social variety, and (c) social opportunity. Results: A total of 70 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with a Type D personality had lower scores on the "social opportunity" variable compared to non-Type D patients (F = 6.72; p = .01). Type D personality was associated with lower social participation after adjusting for depression and anxiety. No association between Type D personality and general activity or behavioral variety was observed. Conclusions: This is the first study to use an ecological measure to assess social behavior of cardiac patients with a Type D personality. Results show that Type D personality might be associated with lower social engagement, which could, in turn, partly explain its association with adverse health outcomes.
- Ecological assessment
- Geographic Information System
- Social behavior
- Social engagement
- Type D personality