Two-temperature balance equations implementation, numerical validation and application to H2O–He microwave induced plasmas

Samaneh Tadayon Mousavi (Corresponding author), E.A.D. Carbone, A.J. (Bram) Wolf, Waldo A. Bongers, Jan van Dijk

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Global Models are widely used to study reaction kinetics in low-temperature plasma discharges. The governing conservative equations are simplified into a system of ordinary differential equations in order to provide computationally feasible conditions to study complex chemistries with hundreds of species and thousands of reactions. This paper presents a detailed two-temperature global model for a H2O–He mixture. The model developed in this work uses a statistical thermodynamics approach to solve the heavy particles energy equation self-consistently together with the electron energy and particles balance equations in order to improve the description of reactive plasma environments. Three analytical test cases are presented to validate and demonstrate the capability of this newly developed functionality embedded in PLASIMO software's [1] global model module. The developed H2O–He models are compared with the reported results for a radio-frequency plasma [2] and then with experimental measured electron densities and gas temperature for a microwave induced plasma. In addition, conversion and energy efficiencies of hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide productions are compared with experimental values (only for hydrogen) for a pure H2O microwave induced plasma and with available literature results. This comparison underlines the challenges toward finding an optimal plasma configuration and conditions for production of hydrogen from water. The three analytical test cases for validation of the gas-temperature balance implementation in the PLASIMO global model and the detailed developed H2O–He model can be used as benchmarks for other global plasma models. The PLASIMO input files for the presented H2O–He model are available as supplementary materials (; for any future update, please consult the PLASIMO website,
Original languageEnglish
Article number075007
Number of pages36
JournalPlasma Sources Science and Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2021


  • Global model
  • H O-He plasma chemistry
  • Hydrogen peroxide production
  • Hydrogen production
  • Microwave-induced plasma
  • Statistical thermodyanmics
  • Two-temperature balance equations


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