Towards ultra personalized 4D printed shoes

Troy Robert Nachtigall, Oscar Tomico, Ron Wakkary, Stephan Wensveen, Pauline van Dongen, Leonie Tenthof van Noorden

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


In this case study three designers supported by multiple stakeholders created a pair of fully personalized printed high heel shoes in a period of two months for a single user. The shoes are made with soft and flexible materials for dynamic fit and use. The shoes are not only uniquely formed to the user’s feet but the geometry of the material is designed to support and flex with the movement of each foot. These shoes utilize a 4D printing approach in the way they are made to fit the user while they move and change. Designing a shoe to such a degree represents a form of Ultra Personalization. This case study of an ultra personalized approach addresses the negotiation of key design considerations: aesthetics, comfort, robustness, balance and temperature. The findings inform digital fabrication design, software, and tools for designers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI 2018 - Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Subtitle of host publicationEngage with CHI
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery, Inc
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4503-5621-3
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2018
Event2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2018 - Montreal, Canada, Montreal, Canada
Duration: 21 Apr 201826 Apr 2018
Conference number: 36


Conference2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2018
Abbreviated titleCHI 2018
Internet address


  • 4D Printing
  • Design Software
  • Flexible Material
  • Footwear Design
  • Research through Design
  • Ultra Personalization


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