Designing an optimal wind farm layout requires fundamental knowledge of the interaction of wind turbines in an arrangement. In this paper, extensive high-fidelity CFD simulations are performed to investigate the influence of relative spacing, i.e., distance (R) and angle (Φ), in double rotor arrangements of co-rotating Darrieus H-type vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) on their aerodynamic performance. The relative spacing varies within 1.25d ≤ R ≤ 10d (d: turbine diameter) and −90° ≤ Φ ≤ +90°. The turbines operate at their optimal tip speed ratio. The analysis is focused on the individual and overall power performance of the turbines and their aerodynamics. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations, validated with experiments, are employed. It is found that an optimal region exists in which a higher overall power coefficient (CPoverall) compared to the CP of an isolated solo rotor (CPSolo) can be achieved. This region corresponds to compact rotor arrangements, i.e. R/d ≤ 3d with Φ ≥ +45° and Φ ≤ −45°, yielding a maximum 1.8% increment in CPoverall/CPSolo at R/d = 1.25 and Φ = +75°. Detailed flow analysis reveals that in the optimal spacing, a narrow passage between the two rotors is formed within which the flow accelerates, forming a high-velocity region. The downstream turbine benefits from its blade(s) passing through this region and consequently yields higher CP values. The findings highlight the high potential for compact VAWT farms with high power density and support the optimal layout design of VAWT farms.
- Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
- Wind farm layout design
- Wind energy
- Power performance
- Urban wind farm
- Urban and offshore wind energy