Innovative behavior can be described as a process in which new ideas are generated, created, developed, applied, promoted, realized, and modified by employees to benefit role performance. Various reasons, such as rapid technological and social changes in society, underline the necessity for innovative behavior of employees and certainly of teachers. However, little research has been conducted that explores teacher innovative behavior and which factors influence this behavior or what effects can be achieved through such behavior. In this systematic literature review, we develop a preliminary model of factors that enhance innovative behavior in educational organizations. Similar to findings of studies in other human behavior fields, self-efficacy plays an important role as well as a variety of individual and environmental factors. Based on this review, we urge for more systematic research on teacher innovative behavior to enhance the future quality of education.