In-service degradation of a pipe section is monitored in real time with torsional guided waves which can resolve 5% damage to the internal wall. We use a single permanently installed source–receiver pair as opposed to the current state-of-the-art sensor rings. There is no baseline subtraction requirement as a single reflection coefficient is derived by internal referencing of the time trace. Even with continuously operating pump vibration, there is enough acoustic signal for confident damage localization. Since pipelines wear out gradually in industrial installations, the acoustic footprint is similar to that previously determined in periodically damaged pipes. The reflective method can thus be applied successfully to monitor structural health in industrial pipelines during operation as opposed to the current state-of-the-art guided wave inspection approaches using near-weld reflection techniques along with disassembled and re-assembled sensor rings.
- surface waves