Parasitic optical absorption is one of the root causes of the moderate efficiency of metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with an opaque substrate configuration. Here, we investigate the reduction of these optical losses by using thin (7-10 nm), undoped, thermally evaporated 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), N,N′-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine) (NPB), and tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine) (TCTA) hole transport layers (HTLs). Of these, NPB is found to offer the best compromise between efficiency and stability. In semitransparent n-i-p configuration PSCs with an indium tin oxide bottom and a MoO3/thin-Au/ZnS dielectric-metal-dielectric top electrode, NPB gives 14.9% and 10.7% efficiency for bottom and top illumination, respectively. The corresponding substrate-configuration PSC fabricated on an Au bottom electrode has 13.1% efficiency. Compared to a 14.0% efficient PSC with a thick spin-coated doped spiro-OMeTAD layer, the cell with NPB provides an improved short-circuit current density but has slightly lower open-circuit voltage and fill factor. Detailed analysis of the optical losses in the opaque devices demonstrates that evaporated NPB offers negligible parasitic absorption compared to solution-processed spiro-OMeTAD. The optical losses that remain are due to absorption and reflection of the transparent top electrode.
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© 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
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- hole transport layer
- metal halide perovskite
- optical modeling
- solar cell
- substrate configuration
- top illumination