### Abstract

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate power from mixing waters with different salinity. The net power density (i.e. power per membrane area) is determined by 1) the membrane potential, 2) the ohmic resistance, 3) the resistance due to changing bulk concentrations, 4) the boundary layer resistance and 5) the power required to pump the feed water. Previous power density estimations often neglected the latter three terms. This paper provides a set of analytical equations to estimate the net power density obtainable from RED stacks with spacers and RED stacks with profiled membranes. With the current technology, the obtained maximum net power density is calculated at 2.7 W/m2. Higher power densities could be obtained by changing the cell design, in particular the membrane resistance and the cell length. Changing these parameters one and two orders of magnitude respectively, the calculated net power density is close to 20 W/m2.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Energy Procedia |

Publisher | Elsevier Bedrijfsinformatie |

Pages | 170-184 |

Number of pages | 15 |

Volume | 20 |

ISBN (Print) | 9781627484299 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2012 |

Externally published | Yes |

Event | Technoport 2012 - Sharing Possibilities and 2nd Renewable Energy Research Conference, RERC 2012 - Trondheim, Norway Duration: 16 Apr 2012 → 18 Apr 2012 |

### Conference

Conference | Technoport 2012 - Sharing Possibilities and 2nd Renewable Energy Research Conference, RERC 2012 |
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Country | Norway |

City | Trondheim |

Period | 16/04/12 → 18/04/12 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- Boundary layer
- Ion exchange membranes
- Profiled membranes
- Reverse electrodialysis
- Salinity gradient energy
- Spacers

### Cite this

*Energy Procedia*(Vol. 20, pp. 170-184). Elsevier Bedrijfsinformatie. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.03.018

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*Energy Procedia.*vol. 20, Elsevier Bedrijfsinformatie, pp. 170-184, Technoport 2012 - Sharing Possibilities and 2nd Renewable Energy Research Conference, RERC 2012, Trondheim, Norway, 16/04/12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.03.018

**Theoretical power density from salinity gradients using reverse electrodialysis.** / Vermaas, D.A.; Guler, E.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution › Academic › peer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Theoretical power density from salinity gradients using reverse electrodialysis

AU - Vermaas, D.A.

AU - Guler, E.

AU - Saakes, M.

AU - Nijmeijer, K.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate power from mixing waters with different salinity. The net power density (i.e. power per membrane area) is determined by 1) the membrane potential, 2) the ohmic resistance, 3) the resistance due to changing bulk concentrations, 4) the boundary layer resistance and 5) the power required to pump the feed water. Previous power density estimations often neglected the latter three terms. This paper provides a set of analytical equations to estimate the net power density obtainable from RED stacks with spacers and RED stacks with profiled membranes. With the current technology, the obtained maximum net power density is calculated at 2.7 W/m2. Higher power densities could be obtained by changing the cell design, in particular the membrane resistance and the cell length. Changing these parameters one and two orders of magnitude respectively, the calculated net power density is close to 20 W/m2.

AB - Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate power from mixing waters with different salinity. The net power density (i.e. power per membrane area) is determined by 1) the membrane potential, 2) the ohmic resistance, 3) the resistance due to changing bulk concentrations, 4) the boundary layer resistance and 5) the power required to pump the feed water. Previous power density estimations often neglected the latter three terms. This paper provides a set of analytical equations to estimate the net power density obtainable from RED stacks with spacers and RED stacks with profiled membranes. With the current technology, the obtained maximum net power density is calculated at 2.7 W/m2. Higher power densities could be obtained by changing the cell design, in particular the membrane resistance and the cell length. Changing these parameters one and two orders of magnitude respectively, the calculated net power density is close to 20 W/m2.

KW - Boundary layer

KW - Ion exchange membranes

KW - Profiled membranes

KW - Reverse electrodialysis

KW - Salinity gradient energy

KW - Spacers

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84872680228&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.egypro.2012.03.018

DO - 10.1016/j.egypro.2012.03.018

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84872680228

SN - 9781627484299

VL - 20

SP - 170

EP - 184

BT - Energy Procedia

PB - Elsevier Bedrijfsinformatie

ER -