Within the contextual model of learning framework, the authors conducted a study with electronic handheld guides at the Van Abbemuseum (Eindhoven, the Netherlands). This study investigated the influence that limiting users' freedom of choice and control by facilitated mediation of others has on users' learning experiences. The different levels of control were implemented on the ubiNext museum guide system. The level of users' control had no significant influence on the amount of art the participants talked about. However, in the curator recommendation mode, the participants had a more passive attitude. The different handheld devices did not perform better than the paper guide. As the paper guide did not require any troubleshooting, it can even be considered a better solution. However, the handheld devices could not be used to their full potential as audio and video data were not present.
Bartneck, C., Masuoka, A., Takahashi, T., & Fukaya, T. (2006). The learning experience with electronic museum guides. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, S(1), 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1037/1931-3896.S.1.18