To fight bone diseases characterized by poor bone quality like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, as well as in reconstructive surgery, there is a need for a new generation of implantable biomaterials. It is envisioned that implant surfaces can be improved by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix of bone tissue, which is highly a organized nano-composite. In this study we aimed to get a better understanding of osteoblast response to nanometric grooved substrates varying in height, width and spacing. A throughput screening biochip was created using electron beam lithography. Subsequently, uniform large-scale nanogrooved substrates were created using laser interference lithography and reactive ion etching. Results showed that osteoblasts were responsive to nanopatterns down to 75 nm in width and 33 nm in depth. SEM and TEM studies showed that an osteoblast-driven calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization was observed to follow the surface pattern dimensions. Strikingly, aligned mineralization was found on even smaller nanopatterns of 50 nm in width and 17 nm in depth. A single cell based approach for real time PCR demonstrated that osteoblast-specific gene expression was increased on nanopatterns relative to a smooth control. The results indicate that nanogrooves can be a very promising tool to direct the bone response at the interface between an implant and the bone tissue.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2010|