The Effect of Distance on Audiovisual Temporal Integration in an Outdoor Virtual Environment

Victoria Fucci (Corresponding author), P. Krol, Myrthe A. Plaisier, Raymond H. Cuijpers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this study, we explore the influence of stimulus distance on human tolerance for (physical) asynchronies in virtual reality (VR). A repeated audiovisual (AV) stimulus with sound and light bursts was presented to the participants in an outdoor virtual environment (VE) using a head-mounted display (HMD). The investigation focused on quantifying the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) for both visual and auditory stimuli. A synchrony judgment method (SJ-3) was used for 11 stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and five egocentric distances from 10 m up to 50 m with 10 m increments. The data analysis showed negative PSS values that decreased with distance, resulting in a negative slope (-3 ms/m) of the regression line between PSS values and simulated distances. In contrast to our previous study in the indoor VE (Fucci & Cuijpers, 2024), we conclude that the presented study in the outdoor VE does not incorporate a distance compensation mechanism and refutes the hypothesis of an "implicit estimation" of sound-arrival time. The reasons behind the observed contrast are discussed in this paper. Moreover, the negative slope of the regression line (-3 ms/m) is similar to the previous research by Lewald & Guski (2004), who concluded that there is simply a temporal integration of auditory-visual information within human neural processes without distance compensation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalVirtual Reality
Issue numberX
Publication statusSubmitted - 14 Mar 2024


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