The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony

R.J. Sluijter

Research output: ThesisPhd Thesis 2 (Research NOT TU/e / Graduation TU/e)Academic

Abstract

This thesis describes in its core chapter (Chapter 4) the original algorithmic and design features of the ??rst coder for public mobile telephony, the GSM full-rate speech coder, as standardized in 1988. It has never been described in so much detail as presented here. The coder is put in a historical perspective by two preceding chapters on the history of speech production models and the development of speech coding techniques until the mid 1980s, respectively. In the epilogue a brief review is given of later developments in speech coding. The introductory Chapter 1 starts with some preliminaries. It is de- ??ned what speech coding is and the reader is introduced to speech coding standards and the standardization institutes which set them. Then, the attributes of a speech coder playing a role in standardization are explained. Subsequently, several applications of speech coders - including mobile telephony - will be discussed and the state of the art in speech coding will be illustrated on the basis of some worldwide recognized standards. Chapter 2 starts with a summary of the features of speech signals and their source, the human speech organ. Then, historical models of speech production which form the basis of di??erent kinds of modern speech coders are discussed. Starting with a review of ancient mechanical models, we will arrive at the electrical source-??lter model of the 1930s. Subsequently, the acoustic-tube models as they arose in the 1950s and 1960s are discussed. Finally the 1970s are reviewed which brought the discrete-time ??lter model on the basis of linear prediction. In a unique way the logical sequencing of these models is exposed, and the links are discussed. Whereas the historical models are discussed in a narrative style, the acoustic tube models and the linear prediction tech nique as applied to speech, are subject to more mathematical analysis in order to create a sound basis for the treatise of Chapter 4. This trend continues in Chapter 3, whenever instrumental in completing that basis. In Chapter 3 the reader is taken by the hand on a guided tour through time during which successive speech coding methods pass in review. In an original way special attention is paid to the evolutionary aspect. Speci??cally, for each newly proposed method it is discussed what it added to the known techniques of the time. After presenting the relevant predecessors starting with Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and the early vocoders of the 1930s, we will arrive at Residual-Excited Linear Predictive (RELP) coders, Analysis-by-Synthesis systems and Regular- Pulse Excitation in 1984. The latter forms the basis of the GSM full-rate coder. In Chapter 4, which constitutes the core of this thesis, explicit forms of Multi-Pulse Excited (MPE) and Regular-Pulse Excited (RPE) analysis-by-synthesis coding systems are developed. Starting from current pulse-amplitude computation methods in 1984, which included solving sets of equations (typically of order 10-16) two hundred times a second, several explicit-form designs are considered by which solving sets of equations in real time is avoided. Then, the design of a speci??c explicitform RPE coder and an associated eÆcient architecture are described. The explicit forms and the resulting architectural features have never been published in so much detail as presented here. Implementation of such a codec enabled real-time operation on a state-of-the-art singlechip digital signal processor of the time. This coder, at a bit rate of 13 kbit/s, has been selected as the Full-Rate GSM standard in 1988. Its performance is recapitulated. Chapter 5 is an epilogue brie y reviewing the major developments in speech coding technology after 1988. Many speech coding standards have been set, for mobile telephony as well as for other applications, since then. The chapter is concluded by an outlook.
LanguageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Department of Electrical Engineering
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Bergmans, Jan, Promotor
  • Vary, P., Promotor, External person
Award date10 Oct 2005
Place of PublicationEindhoven
Publisher
Print ISBNs90-74445-00-4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2005

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Speech coding
Global system for mobile communications
Standardization
Vocoders
Acoustics
Pulse code modulation
Acoustic waves

Cite this

Sluijter, R. J. (2005). The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven DOI: 10.6100/IR596759
Sluijter, R.J.. / The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony. Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005. 259 p.
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title = "The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony",
abstract = "This thesis describes in its core chapter (Chapter 4) the original algorithmic and design features of the ??rst coder for public mobile telephony, the GSM full-rate speech coder, as standardized in 1988. It has never been described in so much detail as presented here. The coder is put in a historical perspective by two preceding chapters on the history of speech production models and the development of speech coding techniques until the mid 1980s, respectively. In the epilogue a brief review is given of later developments in speech coding. The introductory Chapter 1 starts with some preliminaries. It is de- ??ned what speech coding is and the reader is introduced to speech coding standards and the standardization institutes which set them. Then, the attributes of a speech coder playing a role in standardization are explained. Subsequently, several applications of speech coders - including mobile telephony - will be discussed and the state of the art in speech coding will be illustrated on the basis of some worldwide recognized standards. Chapter 2 starts with a summary of the features of speech signals and their source, the human speech organ. Then, historical models of speech production which form the basis of di??erent kinds of modern speech coders are discussed. Starting with a review of ancient mechanical models, we will arrive at the electrical source-??lter model of the 1930s. Subsequently, the acoustic-tube models as they arose in the 1950s and 1960s are discussed. Finally the 1970s are reviewed which brought the discrete-time ??lter model on the basis of linear prediction. In a unique way the logical sequencing of these models is exposed, and the links are discussed. Whereas the historical models are discussed in a narrative style, the acoustic tube models and the linear prediction tech nique as applied to speech, are subject to more mathematical analysis in order to create a sound basis for the treatise of Chapter 4. This trend continues in Chapter 3, whenever instrumental in completing that basis. In Chapter 3 the reader is taken by the hand on a guided tour through time during which successive speech coding methods pass in review. In an original way special attention is paid to the evolutionary aspect. Speci??cally, for each newly proposed method it is discussed what it added to the known techniques of the time. After presenting the relevant predecessors starting with Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and the early vocoders of the 1930s, we will arrive at Residual-Excited Linear Predictive (RELP) coders, Analysis-by-Synthesis systems and Regular- Pulse Excitation in 1984. The latter forms the basis of the GSM full-rate coder. In Chapter 4, which constitutes the core of this thesis, explicit forms of Multi-Pulse Excited (MPE) and Regular-Pulse Excited (RPE) analysis-by-synthesis coding systems are developed. Starting from current pulse-amplitude computation methods in 1984, which included solving sets of equations (typically of order 10-16) two hundred times a second, several explicit-form designs are considered by which solving sets of equations in real time is avoided. Then, the design of a speci??c explicitform RPE coder and an associated e{\AE}cient architecture are described. The explicit forms and the resulting architectural features have never been published in so much detail as presented here. Implementation of such a codec enabled real-time operation on a state-of-the-art singlechip digital signal processor of the time. This coder, at a bit rate of 13 kbit/s, has been selected as the Full-Rate GSM standard in 1988. Its performance is recapitulated. Chapter 5 is an epilogue brie y reviewing the major developments in speech coding technology after 1988. Many speech coding standards have been set, for mobile telephony as well as for other applications, since then. The chapter is concluded by an outlook.",
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Sluijter, RJ 2005, 'The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony', Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven. DOI: 10.6100/IR596759

The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony. / Sluijter, R.J.

Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005. 259 p.

Research output: ThesisPhd Thesis 2 (Research NOT TU/e / Graduation TU/e)Academic

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N2 - This thesis describes in its core chapter (Chapter 4) the original algorithmic and design features of the ??rst coder for public mobile telephony, the GSM full-rate speech coder, as standardized in 1988. It has never been described in so much detail as presented here. The coder is put in a historical perspective by two preceding chapters on the history of speech production models and the development of speech coding techniques until the mid 1980s, respectively. In the epilogue a brief review is given of later developments in speech coding. The introductory Chapter 1 starts with some preliminaries. It is de- ??ned what speech coding is and the reader is introduced to speech coding standards and the standardization institutes which set them. Then, the attributes of a speech coder playing a role in standardization are explained. Subsequently, several applications of speech coders - including mobile telephony - will be discussed and the state of the art in speech coding will be illustrated on the basis of some worldwide recognized standards. Chapter 2 starts with a summary of the features of speech signals and their source, the human speech organ. Then, historical models of speech production which form the basis of di??erent kinds of modern speech coders are discussed. Starting with a review of ancient mechanical models, we will arrive at the electrical source-??lter model of the 1930s. Subsequently, the acoustic-tube models as they arose in the 1950s and 1960s are discussed. Finally the 1970s are reviewed which brought the discrete-time ??lter model on the basis of linear prediction. In a unique way the logical sequencing of these models is exposed, and the links are discussed. Whereas the historical models are discussed in a narrative style, the acoustic tube models and the linear prediction tech nique as applied to speech, are subject to more mathematical analysis in order to create a sound basis for the treatise of Chapter 4. This trend continues in Chapter 3, whenever instrumental in completing that basis. In Chapter 3 the reader is taken by the hand on a guided tour through time during which successive speech coding methods pass in review. In an original way special attention is paid to the evolutionary aspect. Speci??cally, for each newly proposed method it is discussed what it added to the known techniques of the time. After presenting the relevant predecessors starting with Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and the early vocoders of the 1930s, we will arrive at Residual-Excited Linear Predictive (RELP) coders, Analysis-by-Synthesis systems and Regular- Pulse Excitation in 1984. The latter forms the basis of the GSM full-rate coder. In Chapter 4, which constitutes the core of this thesis, explicit forms of Multi-Pulse Excited (MPE) and Regular-Pulse Excited (RPE) analysis-by-synthesis coding systems are developed. Starting from current pulse-amplitude computation methods in 1984, which included solving sets of equations (typically of order 10-16) two hundred times a second, several explicit-form designs are considered by which solving sets of equations in real time is avoided. Then, the design of a speci??c explicitform RPE coder and an associated eÆcient architecture are described. The explicit forms and the resulting architectural features have never been published in so much detail as presented here. Implementation of such a codec enabled real-time operation on a state-of-the-art singlechip digital signal processor of the time. This coder, at a bit rate of 13 kbit/s, has been selected as the Full-Rate GSM standard in 1988. Its performance is recapitulated. Chapter 5 is an epilogue brie y reviewing the major developments in speech coding technology after 1988. Many speech coding standards have been set, for mobile telephony as well as for other applications, since then. The chapter is concluded by an outlook.

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Sluijter RJ. The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony. Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005. 259 p. Available from, DOI: 10.6100/IR596759