The CFD Design and Optimisation of a 100 kW Hydrogen Fuelled mGT

Cedric Devriese, G.F.M. Penninx, G.C. de Ruiter, Rob J.M. Bastiaans, Ward De Paepe

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Against the background of a growing deployment of renewable electricity production, like wind and solar, the demand for energy storage will only increase. One of the most promising ways to cover the medium to long-term storage is to use the excess electricity to produce hydrogen via electrolysis. In a modern energy grid, filled with intermittent power sources and ever-increasing problems to construct large power plants in densely populated areas, a network of Decentralised Energy Systems (DES) seems more logical. Therefore, the importance of research into the design of a small to medium-sized hydrogen fuelled micro Gas Turbine (mGT) unit for efficient, local heat and electricity production becomes apparent. To be able to compete with Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICEs), the mGT needs to reach 40 % electrical efficiency. To do so, there are two main challenges; the design of an ultra-low NOX hydrogen combustor and a high Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) radial turbine. In this paper, we report on the progress of our work towards that goal. First, an improvement of the initial single-nozzle swirler (swozzle) combustor geometry was abandoned in favour of a full CFD (steady RANS) design and optimisation of a micromix type combustion chamber, due to its advantages towards NOx-emission reduction. Second, a full CFD design and optimisation of the compressor and turbine is performed. The improved micromix combustor geometry resulted in a NOx level reduction of more than 1 order of magnitude compared to our previous swozzle design (from 1400 ppm to 250 ppm). Moreover, several design parameters, such as the position and diameter of the hydrogen injection nozzle and the Air Guiding Panel (AGP) height, have been optimized to improve the flow patterns. Next to the combustion chamber, CFD simulations of the compressor and turbine matched the 1D performance calculations and reached the desired performance goals. A CFD analysis of the impact of the tip gap and exhaust diffuser cone angle led to a choice of these parameters that improved the compressor and turbine performance with a limited loss in efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2020
Subtitle of host publicationTurbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition GT2020, June 22-26, 2020, London, England
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2020
EventASME Turbo Expo 2020: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 22 Jun 202026 Jun 2020

Conference

ConferenceASME Turbo Expo 2020
Abbreviated titleGT2020
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityLondon
Period22/06/2026/06/20

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