The Anatolian "ergative"

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Abstract

The Anatolian languages are unique among the Indo-European languages in having a suffix for neuter nouns in the agent position, hereafter referred to as the agentive suffix. There exist several theories concerning the grammatical analysis of this suffix (Melchert 2007). In this article I expand on research by Goedebuure (2013) by testing these theories for all languages in which this construction is attested. It turns out that the agentive was originally a personifying suffix *-ont-, a function still present in Old Hittite and Luwian. This suffix was grammaticalised into a grammatical suffix already in Proto-Anatolian. This suffix could only occur in the common gender nominative. In NeoHittite, the construction -ant-s/-ant-es was reanalysed as case endings -anza/-anteš of a new ergative case appearing
only in the neuter gender. A similar reanalysis was happening in Lycian. The suffix *-ont- was grammaticalised in order to be able to form neuter agents, which was impossible in Proto-Indo-European. The non-Anatolian Indo-European languages filled this gap by extending the function of the neutral subject/patient ending *-Ø and *-om to the agent function. This shared innovation constitutes an argument in favour of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Precursors of Proto-Indo-European
Subtitle of host publicationThe Indo-Anatolian and Indo-Uralic Hypotheses
EditorsAlwin Kloekhorst, Tijmen Pronk
Place of PublicationLeiden
PublisherBrill
Pages131-150
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)978-90-04-40935-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameLeiden Studies in Indo-European
PublisherBrill/Rodopi
Volume21

Fingerprint

Ergative
Neuter
Agentive
Indo-European Languages
Anatolian Languages
Proto-Indo-European
Innovation
Language
Neuter Gender
Case Endings
Ergative Case
Old Hittite
Nominative
Nouns
Testing
Reanalysis

Cite this

Lopuhaä, M. (2019). The Anatolian "ergative". In A. Kloekhorst, & T. Pronk (Eds.), The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European: The Indo-Anatolian and Indo-Uralic Hypotheses (pp. 131-150). (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; Vol. 21). Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004409354_011
Lopuhaä, Milan. / The Anatolian "ergative". The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European: The Indo-Anatolian and Indo-Uralic Hypotheses. editor / Alwin Kloekhorst ; Tijmen Pronk. Leiden : Brill, 2019. pp. 131-150 (Leiden Studies in Indo-European).
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Lopuhaä, M 2019, The Anatolian "ergative". in A Kloekhorst & T Pronk (eds), The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European: The Indo-Anatolian and Indo-Uralic Hypotheses. Leiden Studies in Indo-European, vol. 21, Brill, Leiden, pp. 131-150. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004409354_011

The Anatolian "ergative". / Lopuhaä, Milan.

The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European: The Indo-Anatolian and Indo-Uralic Hypotheses. ed. / Alwin Kloekhorst; Tijmen Pronk. Leiden : Brill, 2019. p. 131-150 (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; Vol. 21).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AB - The Anatolian languages are unique among the Indo-European languages in having a suffix for neuter nouns in the agent position, hereafter referred to as the agentive suffix. There exist several theories concerning the grammatical analysis of this suffix (Melchert 2007). In this article I expand on research by Goedebuure (2013) by testing these theories for all languages in which this construction is attested. It turns out that the agentive was originally a personifying suffix *-ont-, a function still present in Old Hittite and Luwian. This suffix was grammaticalised into a grammatical suffix already in Proto-Anatolian. This suffix could only occur in the common gender nominative. In NeoHittite, the construction -ant-s/-ant-es was reanalysed as case endings -anza/-anteš of a new ergative case appearingonly in the neuter gender. A similar reanalysis was happening in Lycian. The suffix *-ont- was grammaticalised in order to be able to form neuter agents, which was impossible in Proto-Indo-European. The non-Anatolian Indo-European languages filled this gap by extending the function of the neutral subject/patient ending *-Ø and *-om to the agent function. This shared innovation constitutes an argument in favour of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.

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ER -

Lopuhaä M. The Anatolian "ergative". In Kloekhorst A, Pronk T, editors, The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European: The Indo-Anatolian and Indo-Uralic Hypotheses. Leiden: Brill. 2019. p. 131-150. (Leiden Studies in Indo-European). https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004409354_011