The ALU+ concept: n-type silicon solar cells with surface passivated screen-printed aluminum-alloyed rear emitter

R. Bock, J. Schmidt, S. Mau, B. Hoex, W.M.M. Kessels, R. Brendel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


Aluminum-doped p-type (Al-p+) silicon emitters fabricated by means of screen-printing and firing are effectively passivated by plasma-enhanced chemicalvapor deposited (PECVD) amorphous silicon (a-Si) and atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as well as Al2O3/SiNx stacks, where the silicon nitride (SiNx) layer is deposited by PECVD. While the a-Si passivation of the Al-p+ emitter results in an emitter saturation current density J0e of 246 fA/cm2, the Al2O3/SiNx double layers result in emitter saturation current densities as low as 160 fA/cm2, which is the lowest J0e reported so far for screenprinted Al-doped p+ emitters. Moreover, the Al2O3 as well as the Al2O3/SiNx stacks show an excellent stability during firing in a conveyor belt furnace at 900°C. We implement our newly developed passivated Al-p+ emitter into an n+np+ solar cell structure, the so-called ALU+ cell. An independently confirmed conversion efficiency of 20% is achieved on an aperture cell area of 4 cm2, clearly demonstrating the high-efficiency potential of our ALU+ cell concept.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Philadelphia, USA (2009)
Place of PublicationPiscataway
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Event34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 2009) - Philadelphia, United States
Duration: 7 Jun 200912 Jun 2009
Conference number: 34


Conference34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 2009)
Abbreviated titlePVSC 2009
Country/TerritoryUnited States


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