PURPOSE: Incorporation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and targeted biopsy (TBx) in the diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer (CaP) is rapidly becoming common practice. In men with a prebiopsy positive mpMRI a TBx only approach, thereby omitting transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic biopsy (SBx), has been postulated. In this study we evaluated the additional clinical relevance of SBx in men with a positive prebiopsy mpMRI (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] ≥ 3) undergoing TBx for CaP detection, Gleason grading and CaP localization.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective data of 255 consecutive men with a prebiopsy positive mpMRI (PI-RADS ≥ 3) undergoing 12-core SBx and subsequent MRI-transrectal ultrasound fusion TBx in 2 institutions between 2015 and 2018 was obtained. The detection rate for significant CaP (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 3 + 4) for TBx and SBx were compared. The rate of potentially missed significant CaP by a TBx only approach was determined and GS concordance and CaP localization by TBx and SBx was evaluated.
RESULTS: TBx yielded significant CaP in 113 men (44%) while SBx yielded significant CaP in 110 men (43%) (P = 0.856). Insignificant CaP was found in 21 men (8%) by TBx, while SBx detected 34 men (13%) with insignificant CaP (P = 0.035). A TBx only approach, omitting SBx, would have missed significant CaP in 13 of the 126 men (10%) with significant CaP on biopsy. Ten of the 118 men (8%), both positive on TBx and SBx, were upgraded in GS by SBx while 11 men (9%) had higher maximum tumor core involvement on SBx. Nineteen of the 97 men (20%) with significant CaP in both TBx and SBx were diagnosed with unilateral significant CaP on mpMRI and TBx while SBx demonstrated bilateral significant CaP.
CONCLUSIONS: In men with a prebiopsy positive mpMRI, TBx detects high-GS CaP while reducing insignificant CaP detection as compared to SBx. SBx and TBx as stand-alone missed significant CaP in 13% and 10% of the men with significant CaP on biopsy, respectively. A combination of SBx and TBx remains necessary for the most accurate assessment of detection, grading, tumor core involvement, and localization of CaP.