Teleoperation and beyond for assistive humanoid robots

M.A. Goodrich, J.W. Crandall, E.I. Barakova

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    52 Citations (Scopus)


    In this review, we explore how teleoperation could potentially be applied to the management of humanoid robots, with an emphasis on humanoid robots that are used in assistive roles, including clinical therapies. Since there are very few examples of the remote operation of a full humanoid, the review emphasizes technologies that are potentially relevant to teleoperation of humanoids. Teleoperation of humanoid robots faces many of the same practical challenges associated with (a) traditional teleoperation, including latency and telepresence, and (b) teleoperating manipulators and other robots with high degrees of freedom. Teleoperation systems for humanoid robots must also address unique challenges triggered by strong emotional and social responses to humanoids-responses of both the operator and any humans who may interact with the humanoid. These challenges trigger new opportunities for redefining teleoperation to include scripting, programming by demonstration, speech production, and Wizard of Oz interaction. The challenges also provide opportunities to specialize existing modes of interaction and unique opportunities to develop humanoid-specific forms of teleoperation, such as controlling humanoids via exoskeleton-based or inertial sensors. We include in this review a survey of enabling technologies, a taxonomy of practical uses, and a list of emerging themes and approaches to teleoperating humanoid robots.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)175-226
    Number of pages52
    JournalReviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013


    • anthropomorphic robot
    • assistive robotics
    • humanoid robot
    • robotic-based therapy
    • teleoperation


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