Syntax and consistent equation semantics of hybrid Chi

D.A. Beek, van, K.L. Man, M.A. Reniers, J.E. Rooda, R.R.H. Schiffelers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)


The hybrid ¿ (Chi) formalism integrates concepts from dynamics and control theory with concepts from computer science, in particular from process algebra and hybrid automata. It integrates ease of modeling with a straightforward, structured operational semantics. Its ‘consistent equation semantics’ enforces state changes to be consistent with delay predicates, that combine the invariant and flow clauses of hybrid automata. Ease of modeling is ensured by means of the following concepts: (1) different classes of variables: discrete and continuous, of subclass jumping or non-jumping, and algebraic; (2) strong time determinism of alternative composition in combination with delayable guards; (3) integration of urgent and non-urgent actions; (4) differential algebraic equations as a process term as in mathematics; (5) steady-state initialization; and 6) several user-friendly syntactic extensions. Furthermore, the ¿ formalism incorporates several concepts for complex system specification: (1) process terms for scoping that integrate abstraction, local variables, local channels and local recursion definitions; (2) process definition and instantiation that enable process re-use, encapsulation, hierarchical and/or modular composition of processes; and (3) different interaction mechanisms: handshake synchronization and synchronous communication that allow interaction between processes without sharing variables, and shared variables that enable modular composition of continuous-time or hybrid processes. The syntax and semantics are illustrated using several examples.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-210
JournalJournal of Logic and Algebraic Programming
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2006


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