Suboptimal bonding impairs hormonal, epigenetic and neuronal development in preterm infants, but these impairments can be reversed

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This review aimed to raise awareness of the consequences of suboptimal bonding caused by prematurity. In addition to hypoxia–ischaemia, infection and malnutrition, suboptimal bonding is one of the many unnatural stimuli that preterm infants are exposed to, compromising their physiological development. However, the physiological consequences of suboptimal bonding are less frequently addressed in the literature than those of other threatening unnatural stimuli.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)738-751
Number of pages14
JournalActa Paediatrica
Issue number7
Early online date8 Dec 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016


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