This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the use of powder-based three-dimensional printing (3DP) for the synthesis of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. 3DP is a solid free-form fabrication (SFF) technique building up complex open porous 3D structures layer by layer (a bottom-up approach). In contrast to traditional fabrication techniques generally subtracting material step by step (a top-down approach), SFF approaches allow nearly unlimited designs and a large variety of materials to be used for scaffold engineering. Today’s state of the art materials, as well as the mechanical and structural requirements for bone scaffolds, are summarized and discussed in relation to the technical feasibility of their use in 3DP. Advances in the field of 3DP are presented and compared with other SFF methods. Existing strategies on material and design control of scaffolds are reviewed. Finally, the possibilities and limiting factors are addressed and potential strategies to improve 3DP for scaffold engineering are proposed.