String stable model predictive cooperative adaptive cruise control for heterogeneous platoons

Ellen van Nunen (Corresponding author), J.M.F. Reinders, Elham Semsar-Kazerooni, N. van de Wouw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)
194 Downloads (Pure)


Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a potential solution to decrease traffic jams caused by shock waves, increase the road capacity, decrease fuel consumption and improve safety. This paper proposes an integrated solution to a combination of four challenges in these CACC systems. One of the technological challenges is how to guarantee string stability (the ability to avoid amplification of dynamic vehicle responses along the string of vehicles) under nominal operational conditions. The second challenge is how to apply this solution to heterogeneous vehicles. The third challenge is how to maintain confidentiality of the vehicle parameters. Finally, the fourth challenge is to find a method which improves robustness against wireless packet loss. This paper proposes a model predictive control approach in combination with a feed-forward control design, which is based on a shared vector of predicted accelerations over a finite time horizon. This approach is shown to be applicable to a heterogeneous sequence of vehicles, while the vehicle parameters remain confidential. In previous works such an approach has shown to increase robustness against packet losses. Conditions for string stability are presented for the nominal operational conditions. Experimental results are presented and indeed demonstrate string stable behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8671766
Pages (from-to)186-196
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019


  • Heterogeneous platooning
  • cooperative adaptive cruise control
  • model predictive control
  • string stability


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