Steady-state analysis of the effects of residual amplitude modulation of InP-based Integrated phase modulators in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency Stabilization

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Abstract

Residual amplitude modulation of the phase modulator deployed in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is an effect known to cause instabilities to the absolute wavelength of the stabilized laser. We present measurements and analysis of the residual amplitude modulation in an InP-based waveguide electro-optic phase modulator. The modulator is monolithically integrated in the output waveguide of a tuneable laser. The effects on the frequency stabilization of such a laser system to a reference etalon using a Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization scheme are quantified. Frequency offset values in the stabilization point from the reference Fabry-Perot etalon resonance caused by the amplitude modulation are predicted and optimum operating points to minimize residual amplitude modulation are discussed. By operating an electro-refractive phase modulator at the proper bias point we show that frequency offsets corresponding to less than 3×10 ^{-3}$ of the reference cavity full-width half-maximum can be achieved.
LanguageEnglish
Article number8707079
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 May 2019

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Amplitude modulation
Modulators
modulators
Stabilization
stabilization
Lasers
Waveguides
waveguides
lasers
Electrooptical effects
electro-optics
Wavelength
cavities
causes
output
wavelengths

Keywords

  • InP
  • Integrated photonics
  • laser stabilization
  • phase modulator
  • Pound-Drever-Hall

Cite this

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title = "Steady-state analysis of the effects of residual amplitude modulation of InP-based Integrated phase modulators in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency Stabilization",
abstract = "Residual amplitude modulation of the phase modulator deployed in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is an effect known to cause instabilities to the absolute wavelength of the stabilized laser. We present measurements and analysis of the residual amplitude modulation in an InP-based waveguide electro-optic phase modulator. The modulator is monolithically integrated in the output waveguide of a tuneable laser. The effects on the frequency stabilization of such a laser system to a reference etalon using a Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization scheme are quantified. Frequency offset values in the stabilization point from the reference Fabry-Perot etalon resonance caused by the amplitude modulation are predicted and optimum operating points to minimize residual amplitude modulation are discussed. By operating an electro-refractive phase modulator at the proper bias point we show that frequency offsets corresponding to less than 3×10 ^{-3}$ of the reference cavity full-width half-maximum can be achieved.",
keywords = "InP, Integrated photonics, laser stabilization, phase modulator, Pound-Drever-Hall",
author = "Stefanos Andreou and Erwin Bente and Kevin Williams",
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N2 - Residual amplitude modulation of the phase modulator deployed in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is an effect known to cause instabilities to the absolute wavelength of the stabilized laser. We present measurements and analysis of the residual amplitude modulation in an InP-based waveguide electro-optic phase modulator. The modulator is monolithically integrated in the output waveguide of a tuneable laser. The effects on the frequency stabilization of such a laser system to a reference etalon using a Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization scheme are quantified. Frequency offset values in the stabilization point from the reference Fabry-Perot etalon resonance caused by the amplitude modulation are predicted and optimum operating points to minimize residual amplitude modulation are discussed. By operating an electro-refractive phase modulator at the proper bias point we show that frequency offsets corresponding to less than 3×10 ^{-3}$ of the reference cavity full-width half-maximum can be achieved.

AB - Residual amplitude modulation of the phase modulator deployed in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is an effect known to cause instabilities to the absolute wavelength of the stabilized laser. We present measurements and analysis of the residual amplitude modulation in an InP-based waveguide electro-optic phase modulator. The modulator is monolithically integrated in the output waveguide of a tuneable laser. The effects on the frequency stabilization of such a laser system to a reference etalon using a Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization scheme are quantified. Frequency offset values in the stabilization point from the reference Fabry-Perot etalon resonance caused by the amplitude modulation are predicted and optimum operating points to minimize residual amplitude modulation are discussed. By operating an electro-refractive phase modulator at the proper bias point we show that frequency offsets corresponding to less than 3×10 ^{-3}$ of the reference cavity full-width half-maximum can be achieved.

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