Stabilizing Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes by incorporation of binary alkali cations

Nan Li, Lei Song, Yongheng Jia, Yifan Dong, Fangyan Xie, Liduo Wang, Shuxia Tao (Corresponding author), Ni Zhao (Corresponding author)

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The poor stability of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) is a key bottleneck that hinders commercialization of this technology. Here, the degradation process of formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3)-based PeLEDs is carefully investigated and the device stability is improved through binary-alkalication incorporation. Using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, it is found that the degradation of FAPbI3-based PeLEDs during operation is directly associated with ion migration, and incorporation of binary alkali cations, i.e., Cs+ and Rb+, in FAPbI3 can suppress ion migration and significantly enhance the lifetime of PeLEDs. Combining experimental and theoretical approaches, it is further revealed that Cs+ and Rb+ ions stabilize the perovskite films by locating at different lattice positions, with Cs+ ions present relatively uniformly throughout the bulk perovskite, while Rb+ ions are found preferentially on the surface and grain boundaries. Further chemical bonding analysis shows that both Cs+ and Rb+ ions raise the net atomic charge of the surrounding I anions, leading to stronger Coulomb interactions between the cations and the inorganic framework. As a result, the Cs+–Rb+-incorporated PeLEDs exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 15.84%, the highest among alkali cation-incorporated FAPbI3 devices. More importantly, the PeLEDs show significantly enhanced operation stability, achieving a half-lifetime over 3600 min.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1907786
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • alkali cations
  • ion migration
  • light-emitting diodes
  • perovskites
  • stability


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