Spray penetration, combustion, and soot formation characteristics of the ECN Spray C and Spray D injectors in multiple combustion facilities

Noud Maes (Corresponding author), Scott A. Skeen, Michele Bardi, Russell P. Fitzgerald, Louis Marie Malbec, Gilles Bruneaux, Lyle M. Pickett (Corresponding author), Koji Yasutomi, Glen Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
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In a collaborative effort to identify key aspects of heavy-duty diesel injector behavior, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray C and Spray D injectors were characterized in three independent research laboratories using constant volume pre-burn vessels and a heated constant-pressure vessel. This work reports on experiments with nominally identical injectors used in different optically accessible combustion chambers, where one of the injectors was designed intentionally to promote cavitation. Optical diagnostic techniques specifically targeted liquid- and vapor-phase penetration, combustion indicators, and sooting behavior over a large range of ambient temperatures—from 850 K to 1100 K. Because the large-orifice injectors employed in this work result in flame lengths that extend well beyond the optical diagnostics’ field-of-view, a novel method using a characteristic volume is proposed for quantitative comparison of soot under such conditions. Further, the viability of extrapolating these measurements downstream is considered. The results reported in this publication explain trends and unique characteristics of the two different injectors over a range of conditions and serve as calibration targets for numerical efforts within the ECN consortium and beyond. Building on agreement for experimental results from different institutions under inert conditions, apparent differences found in combustion indicators and sooting behavior are addressed and explained. Ignition delay and soot onset are correlated and the results demonstrate the sensitivity of soot formation to the major species of the ambient gas (i.e., carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen in the pre-burn ambient versus nitrogen only in the constant pressure vessel) when holding ambient oxygen volume percent constant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115136
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2020


  • Cavitation
  • Engine Combustion Network (ECN)
  • Ignition delay
  • Lift-off length
  • Soot extinction imaging
  • Spray C & Spray D


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