The main aspect for spectator comfort in outdoor stadiums is protection from wind and rain. This paper presents an investigation of the impact of roof geometry on rain shelter. CFD simulations and Lagrangian particle tracking are performed to analyse the wind flow pattern and rainfall distribution in seven generic stadium configurations and to assess the performance of each roof type. Although most existing stadium roofs are built with a light to medium upward slope towards the field, the analysis indicates that roofs with a downward slope of 13° provide significantly better rain shelter. The reason is not only the well-known trigonometric shielding effect. In addition, this roof type – as opposed to its counterparts – restricts the extent of the primary vortex in the stadium and generates a sufficiently strong counter-rotating secondary vortex below the roof that sweeps the rain away from the stands.
|Title of host publication||Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, 16-18 June 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark|
|Place of Publication||Copenhagen, Denmark|
|Publisher||Technical University of Denmark|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|
|Event||8th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics (NSB 2008), June 16-18, 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark - Copenhagen, Denmark|
Duration: 16 Jun 2008 → 18 Jun 2008
|Name||DTU Byg Report|
|Conference||8th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics (NSB 2008), June 16-18, 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark|
|Abbreviated title||NSB 2008|
|Period||16/06/08 → 18/06/08|
van Hooff, T., Persoon, J. W. P., Blocken, B. J. E., Carmeliet, J. E., & Wit, de, M. H. (2008). Spectator comfort in sports stadiums: on the impact of roof geometry on wind-driven rain shelter. In C. Rode (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, 16-18 June 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark (Vol. 1, pp. 221-228). (DTU Byg Report; Vol. R-189). Technical University of Denmark.