During ultrafiltration deposited layers are often formed on the membrane surface. These layers not only reduce the volumetric flux through the membrane, but also may influence the rejection of other solutes in the feed. In the present paper we will show that besides an increase in the rejection, a decrease in rejection may also occur, which can completely alter the aimed selectivity of the separation process. The influence of deposited layers has been studied experimentally by two types of depositing components: silica sol and the protein BSA. In the presence of a relatively open silica deposit a strong drop in the rejection of PEG and dextran was found compared to the rejection on a clean membrane. For thick deposit layers the rejection even decreased to zero, thus resulting in a total permeation of a normally partially rejected solute. On the other hand an increase in PEG rejection occurred in the presence of a BSA deposit. Due to the compressibility of the protein deposit the highest rejections were measured at the highest pressures. The effects were the most pronounced at the isoelectric point of BSA. A model is presented to describe the underlying phenomena.