Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI

D. Kogut, D. Aussems, N. Ning, K. Bystrov, A. Gicquel, J. Achard, O. Brinza, Y. Addab, C. Martin, C. Pardanaud, S. Khrapak, G. Cartry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Diamond is a promising candidate for enhancing the negative-ion surface production in the ion sources for neutral injection in fusion reactors; hence evaluation of its reactivity towards hydrogen plasma is of high importance. Single crystal and polycrystalline diamond samples were exposed in Pilot-PSI with the D+ flux of (4‒7)·1024 m−2s−1 and the impact energy of 7–9 eV per deuteron at different surface temperatures; under such conditions physical sputtering is negligible, however chemical sputtering is important. Net chemical sputtering yield Y = 9.7·10−3 at/ion at 800 °C was precisely measured ex-situ using a protective platinum mask (5 × 10 × 2 μm) deposited beforehand on a single crystal followed by the post-mortem analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The structural properties of the exposed diamond surface were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Gross chemical sputtering yields were determined in-situ by means of optical emission spectroscopy of the molecular CH A-X band for several surface temperatures. A bell-shaped dependence of the erosion yield versus temperature between 400 °C and 1200 °C was observed, with a maximum yield of ∼1.5·10−2 at/ion attained at 900 °C. The yields obtained for diamond are relatively high (0.5–1.5)·10−2 at/ion, comparable with those of graphite. XPS analysis shows amorphization of diamond surface within 1 nm depth, in a good agreement with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD was also applied to study the hydrogen impact energy threshold for erosion of [100] diamond surface at different temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-118
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
Volume500
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018

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Diamond
erosion
Erosion
Diamonds
diamonds
Single crystals
Sputtering
single crystals
sputtering
Ions
surface temperature
Molecular dynamics
Hydrogen
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
photoelectron spectroscopy
molecular dynamics
Temperature
Optical emission spectroscopy
ions
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Kogut, D., Aussems, D., Ning, N., Bystrov, K., Gicquel, A., Achard, J., ... Cartry, G. (2018). Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 500, 110-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.12.028
Kogut, D. ; Aussems, D. ; Ning, N. ; Bystrov, K. ; Gicquel, A. ; Achard, J. ; Brinza, O. ; Addab, Y. ; Martin, C. ; Pardanaud, C. ; Khrapak, S. ; Cartry, G. / Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI. In: Journal of Nuclear Materials. 2018 ; Vol. 500. pp. 110-118.
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Kogut, D, Aussems, D, Ning, N, Bystrov, K, Gicquel, A, Achard, J, Brinza, O, Addab, Y, Martin, C, Pardanaud, C, Khrapak, S & Cartry, G 2018, 'Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI', Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 500, pp. 110-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.12.028

Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI. / Kogut, D.; Aussems, D.; Ning, N.; Bystrov, K.; Gicquel, A.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; Addab, Y.; Martin, C.; Pardanaud, C.; Khrapak, S.; Cartry, G.

In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 500, 01.03.2018, p. 110-118.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI

AU - Kogut, D.

AU - Aussems, D.

AU - Ning, N.

AU - Bystrov, K.

AU - Gicquel, A.

AU - Achard, J.

AU - Brinza, O.

AU - Addab, Y.

AU - Martin, C.

AU - Pardanaud, C.

AU - Khrapak, S.

AU - Cartry, G.

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - Diamond is a promising candidate for enhancing the negative-ion surface production in the ion sources for neutral injection in fusion reactors; hence evaluation of its reactivity towards hydrogen plasma is of high importance. Single crystal and polycrystalline diamond samples were exposed in Pilot-PSI with the D+ flux of (4‒7)·1024 m−2s−1 and the impact energy of 7–9 eV per deuteron at different surface temperatures; under such conditions physical sputtering is negligible, however chemical sputtering is important. Net chemical sputtering yield Y = 9.7·10−3 at/ion at 800 °C was precisely measured ex-situ using a protective platinum mask (5 × 10 × 2 μm) deposited beforehand on a single crystal followed by the post-mortem analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The structural properties of the exposed diamond surface were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Gross chemical sputtering yields were determined in-situ by means of optical emission spectroscopy of the molecular CH A-X band for several surface temperatures. A bell-shaped dependence of the erosion yield versus temperature between 400 °C and 1200 °C was observed, with a maximum yield of ∼1.5·10−2 at/ion attained at 900 °C. The yields obtained for diamond are relatively high (0.5–1.5)·10−2 at/ion, comparable with those of graphite. XPS analysis shows amorphization of diamond surface within 1 nm depth, in a good agreement with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD was also applied to study the hydrogen impact energy threshold for erosion of [100] diamond surface at different temperatures.

AB - Diamond is a promising candidate for enhancing the negative-ion surface production in the ion sources for neutral injection in fusion reactors; hence evaluation of its reactivity towards hydrogen plasma is of high importance. Single crystal and polycrystalline diamond samples were exposed in Pilot-PSI with the D+ flux of (4‒7)·1024 m−2s−1 and the impact energy of 7–9 eV per deuteron at different surface temperatures; under such conditions physical sputtering is negligible, however chemical sputtering is important. Net chemical sputtering yield Y = 9.7·10−3 at/ion at 800 °C was precisely measured ex-situ using a protective platinum mask (5 × 10 × 2 μm) deposited beforehand on a single crystal followed by the post-mortem analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The structural properties of the exposed diamond surface were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Gross chemical sputtering yields were determined in-situ by means of optical emission spectroscopy of the molecular CH A-X band for several surface temperatures. A bell-shaped dependence of the erosion yield versus temperature between 400 °C and 1200 °C was observed, with a maximum yield of ∼1.5·10−2 at/ion attained at 900 °C. The yields obtained for diamond are relatively high (0.5–1.5)·10−2 at/ion, comparable with those of graphite. XPS analysis shows amorphization of diamond surface within 1 nm depth, in a good agreement with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD was also applied to study the hydrogen impact energy threshold for erosion of [100] diamond surface at different temperatures.

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