Service-embedded product: a functional approach in designing interaction for service-product system

T.J. Tsai, P.D. Lévy, K. Ono, M. Watanabe

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    This paper is aimed at exploring functions of the mixed nature of integration of services and products for sustainable usage environments. Firstly, we review studies of sustainable product-service systems (PSS) in states of comprehensive, process-based, innovative, ecological, and integrated approaches in service designs and service engineering. With much respect for the mixed nature of integrated products and service value, we propose a notion of service-embedded products (SeP) in re-defining the output of PSS. The SeP is adapted from the nature of embedded systems in integrating intangible services into concrete and physical appearances. With functional analysis approaches, we realized the values by extracting relationships from participants (either personal or business-related) in three steps of validating systems: identification of environment, identification of functions, and characterization of functions. The results were profoundly synthesized using four conceptual functions: Information Tangibility (object), Product Affordability (appearance), Network Protocol (interface), and Gateway Accessibility (node). Conclusions were inferred from integrated values in the context of SeP, and provide innovative opportunities in designing SeP for interaction
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalThe science of design : bulletin of Japanese Society for the Science of Design
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


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