Synchrotron radiation observed from runaway electrons (REs) in tokamaks depends upon the position and size of the RE beam, the RE energy and pitch distributions, as well as the location of the observer. We show experimental synchrotron images of a vertically moving RE beam sweeping past the detector in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) tokamak and compare it with predictions from the synthetic synchrotron diagnostic Soft. This experimental validation lends confidence to the theory underlying the synthetic diagnostics which are used for benchmarking theoretical models of and probing runaway dynamics. We present a comparison of synchrotron measurements in TCV with predictions of kinetic theory for runaway dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. We find that to explain the detected synchrotron emission, significant non-collisional pitch angle scattering as well as radial transport of REs would be needed. Such effects could be caused by the presence of magnetic perturbations, which should be further investigated in future TCV experiments.
- Runaway electrons
- Synchrotron radiation