Round-robin tournaments generated by the Circle Method have maximum carry-over

E. Lambrechts, A.M.C. Ficker, D.R. Goossens, F.C.R. Spieksma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
179 Downloads (Pure)


The Circle Method is widely used in the field of sport scheduling to generate schedules for round-robin tournaments. If in such a tournament, team A played team B in its previous match and is now playing team C, team C is said to receive a carry-over effect from team B. The so-called carry-over effect value is a number that can be associated to each round-robin schedule; it represents a degree of unbalancedness of the schedule with respect to carry-over. Here, we prove that, for an even number of teams, the Circle Method generates a schedule with maximum carry-over effect value, answering an open question.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-302
Number of pages26
JournalMathematical Programming
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018


  • Carry-over effect
  • Circle Method
  • Single round robin
  • Sport scheduling


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