Robot-storage zone assignment strategies in mobile fulfillment systems

Debjit Roy (Corresponding author), Shobhit Nigam, Rene de Koster, I.J.B.F. Adan, J.A.C. Resing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


The robotic mobile fulfillment system (MFS) is widely used for automating
storage pick and pack activities in e-commerce distribution centers. In this system, the items are stored on movable storage shelves, also known as inventory pods, and brought to the order pick stations by robotic drive units. We develop stylized performance evaluation models to analyze both order picking and replenishment processes in a mobile fulfillment system storage zone, based on multi-class closed queueing network models. To analyze robot assignment strategies for multiple storage zones, we develop a two-stage stochastic
model. For a single storage zone, we compare dedicated and pooled robot systems for pod retrieval and replenishment. For multiple storage zones, we also analyze the effect of assigning robots to least congested zones on system throughput in comparison to random zone assignment. The models are validated using detailed simulations. For single zones, the expected throughput time for order picking reduces to one-third of its initial value by using pooled robots instead of dedicated robots; however, the expected replenishment time
estimate increases up to three times. For multiple zones, we find that robots that are assigned to storage zones with dedicated and shortest queues provide a greater throughput than robots assigned at random to the zones.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-142
Number of pages24
JournalTransportation Research. Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • Design insights
  • Mobile shelves
  • Queueing models
  • Robot assignment


Dive into the research topics of 'Robot-storage zone assignment strategies in mobile fulfillment systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this