Reduction of particulate matter concentrations by local removal in a building courtyard: Case study for the Delhi American Embassy School

R. Vervoort (Corresponding author), B. Blocken, T. van Hooff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is strongly linked to human morbidity and mortality, where higher exposure entails higher all-cause daily mortality and increased long-term risk of cardiopulmonary mortality. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how and to what extent the local removal of PM2.5 can lead to reduced exposure for the children and teachers in the naturally ventilated courtyard of the American Embassy School (AES) high school building in Delhi. The study is performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in combination with the realizable k-ε turbulence model on a very high resolution grid. First, CFD validation is performed using wind-tunnel experiments of the flow pattern in and above a generic single street canyon. Next, the case study is conducted where four commercially available electrostatic precipitation (ESP) units are installed at different positions inside the courtyard and the resulting performance is evaluated. PM2.5 dispersion is modeled with an Eulerian advection-diffusion equation. It is shown that the best ESP positions yield overall volume-averaged PM2.5 concentration reductions up to 34.1% in the courtyard's corridors, demonstrating the proposed mitigation strategy to be effective. Perspectives for further reduction of the PM concentrations and the related reduction of health risks are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657-680
Number of pages24
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume686
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2019

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Particulate Matter
particulate matter
computational fluid dynamics
mortality
Electrostatics
Computational fluid dynamics
School buildings
advection-diffusion equation
street canyon
Health risks
Navier-Stokes equations
Advection
morbidity
Turbulence models
wind tunnel
flow pattern
Flow patterns
health risk
Navier Stokes equations
Wind tunnels

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Air quality
  • Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
  • Electrostatic precipitation
  • Fine dust
  • Urban physics
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Hydrodynamics
  • India
  • Air Pollution/prevention & control
  • Air Pollutants/analysis
  • Particulate Matter/analysis
  • Environmental Restoration and Remediation

Cite this

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title = "Reduction of particulate matter concentrations by local removal in a building courtyard: Case study for the Delhi American Embassy School",
abstract = "Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is strongly linked to human morbidity and mortality, where higher exposure entails higher all-cause daily mortality and increased long-term risk of cardiopulmonary mortality. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how and to what extent the local removal of PM2.5 can lead to reduced exposure for the children and teachers in the naturally ventilated courtyard of the American Embassy School (AES) high school building in Delhi. The study is performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in combination with the realizable k-ε turbulence model on a very high resolution grid. First, CFD validation is performed using wind-tunnel experiments of the flow pattern in and above a generic single street canyon. Next, the case study is conducted where four commercially available electrostatic precipitation (ESP) units are installed at different positions inside the courtyard and the resulting performance is evaluated. PM2.5 dispersion is modeled with an Eulerian advection-diffusion equation. It is shown that the best ESP positions yield overall volume-averaged PM2.5 concentration reductions up to 34.1{\%} in the courtyard's corridors, demonstrating the proposed mitigation strategy to be effective. Perspectives for further reduction of the PM concentrations and the related reduction of health risks are discussed.",
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author = "R. Vervoort and B. Blocken and {van Hooff}, T.",
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AU - Blocken, B.

AU - van Hooff, T.

PY - 2019/10/10

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N2 - Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is strongly linked to human morbidity and mortality, where higher exposure entails higher all-cause daily mortality and increased long-term risk of cardiopulmonary mortality. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how and to what extent the local removal of PM2.5 can lead to reduced exposure for the children and teachers in the naturally ventilated courtyard of the American Embassy School (AES) high school building in Delhi. The study is performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in combination with the realizable k-ε turbulence model on a very high resolution grid. First, CFD validation is performed using wind-tunnel experiments of the flow pattern in and above a generic single street canyon. Next, the case study is conducted where four commercially available electrostatic precipitation (ESP) units are installed at different positions inside the courtyard and the resulting performance is evaluated. PM2.5 dispersion is modeled with an Eulerian advection-diffusion equation. It is shown that the best ESP positions yield overall volume-averaged PM2.5 concentration reductions up to 34.1% in the courtyard's corridors, demonstrating the proposed mitigation strategy to be effective. Perspectives for further reduction of the PM concentrations and the related reduction of health risks are discussed.

AB - Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is strongly linked to human morbidity and mortality, where higher exposure entails higher all-cause daily mortality and increased long-term risk of cardiopulmonary mortality. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how and to what extent the local removal of PM2.5 can lead to reduced exposure for the children and teachers in the naturally ventilated courtyard of the American Embassy School (AES) high school building in Delhi. The study is performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in combination with the realizable k-ε turbulence model on a very high resolution grid. First, CFD validation is performed using wind-tunnel experiments of the flow pattern in and above a generic single street canyon. Next, the case study is conducted where four commercially available electrostatic precipitation (ESP) units are installed at different positions inside the courtyard and the resulting performance is evaluated. PM2.5 dispersion is modeled with an Eulerian advection-diffusion equation. It is shown that the best ESP positions yield overall volume-averaged PM2.5 concentration reductions up to 34.1% in the courtyard's corridors, demonstrating the proposed mitigation strategy to be effective. Perspectives for further reduction of the PM concentrations and the related reduction of health risks are discussed.

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