Recent progress on microwave imaging technology and new physics results

Benjamin Tobias, Neville C. Luhmann, Calvin W. Domier, Xiangyu Kong, Tianran Liang, Shao Che, Raffi Nazikian, Luo Chen, Gunsu Yun, Woochang Lee, Hyeon K. Park, Ivo G.J. Classen, Jurrian E. Boom, Anthony J.H. Donné, Michael A. Van Zeeland, Réjean Boivin, Yoshio Nagayama, Tomokazu Yoshinaga, Daisuke Kuwahara, Soichiro YamaguchiYuichiro Kogi, Atsushi Mase, Tobin L. Munsat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Techniques for visualizing turbulent flow in nature and in the laboratory have evolved over half a millennium from Leonardo da Vinci's sketches of cascading waterfalls to the advanced imaging technologies which are now pervasive in our daily lives. Advancements in millimeter wave imaging have served to usher in a new era in plasma diagnostics, characterized by ever improving 2D, and even 3D, images of complex phenomena intokamak and stellarator plasmas. Examples at the forefront of this revolution are electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR). ECEI has proved to be a powerful tool as it has provided immediate physics results following successful diagnostic installations on TEXTOR, ASDEX-U, DIIID, and KSTAR. Recent results from the MIR system on LHD are demonstrating that this technique has the potential for comparable impact in the diagnosis of electron density fluctuations. This has motivated a recent resurgence in MIR research and development, building on a prototype system demonstrated on TEXTOR, toward the realization of combined ECEI/MIR systems on DIII-D and KSTAR for simultaneous imaging of electron temperature and density fluctuations. The systems discussed raise the standard for fusion plasma diagnostics and present a powerful new capability for the validation of theoretical models and numerical simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2106042
Number of pages8
JournalPlasma and Fusion Research
Issue number1 SPECIAL ISSUE
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


  • Electron cyclotron emission
  • Electron density fluctuation
  • Electron temperature fluctuation
  • Millimeter-wave imaging
  • Plasma diagnostics
  • Reflectometry


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