Recent advances in 3D bioprinting of musculoskeletal tissues

Tyler Potyondy, Jorge Alfredo Uquillas, Peyton J. Tebon, Batzaya Byambaa, Anwarul Hasan, Maryam Tavafoghi, Heloise Mary, George E. Aninwene, Ippokratis Pountos, Ali Khademhosseini (Corresponding author), Nureddin Ashammakhi (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


The musculoskeletal system is essential for maintaining posture, protecting organs, facilitating locomotion, and regulating various cellular and metabolic functions. Injury to this system due to trauma or wear is common, and severe damage may require surgery to restore function and prevent further harm. Autografts are the current gold standard for the replacement of lost or
damaged tissues. However, these grafts are constrained by limited supply and donor site morbidity.
Allografts, xenografts, and alloplastic materials represent viable alternatives, but each of these methods also has its own problems and limitations. Technological advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing and its biomedical adaptation, 3D bioprinting, have the potential to provide viable, autologous tissue-like constructs that can be used to repair musculoskeletal defects. Though
bioprinting is currently unable to develop mature, implantable tissues, it can pattern cells in 3D constructs with features facilitating maturation and vascularization. Further advances in the field may enable the manufacture of constructs that can mimic native tissues in complexity, spatial heterogeneity, and ultimately, clinical utility. This review studies the use of 3D bioprinting for engineering bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, ligament, and their interface tissues. Additionally, the current limitations and challenges in the field are discussed and the prospects for future progress are highlighted.
Original languageEnglish
Article number022001
Number of pages28
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2021


  • bone, 3D bioprinting, graft, musculoskeletal, tissue defects, tissue engineering
  • tissue engineering
  • graft
  • tissue defects
  • 3D bioprinting
  • bone
  • musculoskeletal


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