damaged tissues. However, these grafts are constrained by limited supply and donor site morbidity.
Allografts, xenografts, and alloplastic materials represent viable alternatives, but each of these methods also has its own problems and limitations. Technological advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing and its biomedical adaptation, 3D bioprinting, have the potential to provide viable, autologous tissue-like constructs that can be used to repair musculoskeletal defects. Though
bioprinting is currently unable to develop mature, implantable tissues, it can pattern cells in 3D constructs with features facilitating maturation and vascularization. Further advances in the field may enable the manufacture of constructs that can mimic native tissues in complexity, spatial heterogeneity, and ultimately, clinical utility. This review studies the use of 3D bioprinting for engineering bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, ligament, and their interface tissues. Additionally, the current limitations and challenges in the field are discussed and the prospects for future progress are highlighted.
- bone, 3D bioprinting, graft, musculoskeletal, tissue defects, tissue engineering
- tissue engineering
- tissue defects
- 3D bioprinting