In this paper, a real-time distributed economic model predictive control approach for complete vehicle energy management (CVEM) is presented using a receding control horizon in combination with a dual decomposition. The dual decomposition allows the CVEM optimization problem to be solved by solving several smaller optimization problems. The receding horizon control problem is formulated with variable sample intervals, allowing for large prediction horizons with only a limited number of decision variables and constraints in the optimization problem. Furthermore, a novel on/off control concept for the control of the refrigerated semi-trailer, the air supply system and the climate control system is introduced. Simulation results on a low-fidelity vehicle model show that close to optimal fuel reduction performance can be achieved. The fuel reduction for the on/off controlled subsystems strongly depends on the number of switches allowed. By allowing up to 15-times more switches, a fuel reduction of 1.3% can be achieved. The approach is also validated on a high-fidelity vehicle model, for which the road slope is predicted by an e-horizon sensor, leading to a prediction of the propulsion power and engine speed. The prediction algorithm is demonstrated with measured ADASIS information on a public road around Eindhoven, which shows that accurate prediction of the propulsion power and engine speed is feasible when the vehicle follows the most probable path. A fuel reduction of up to 0.63% is achieved for the high-fidelity vehicle model.
- Distributed model predictive control
- Dual decomposition
- Energy management
- Hybrid vehicles