Quantized Majorana conductance

Hao Zhang, Chun Xiao Liu, Sasa Gazibegovic, Di Xu, John A. Logan, Guanzhong Wang, Nick Van Loo, Jouri D.S. Bommer, Michiel W.A. de Moor, Diana Car, Roy L.M. Op het Veld, Petrus J. van Veldhoven, Sebastian Koelling, Marcel A. Verheijen, Mihir Pendharkar, Daniel J. Pennachio, Borzoyeh Shojaei, Joon Sue Lee, Chris J. Palmstrøm, Erik P.A.M. BakkersS. Das Sarma, Leo P. Kouwenhoven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

186 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e 2 /h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e 2 /h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e 2 /h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e 2 /h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-79
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume556
Issue number7699
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2018

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Magnetic Fields
Observation
Nanowires
Semiconductors
Indium
Temperature
Aluminum
Spectrum Analysis
Electrons

Cite this

Zhang, H., Liu, C. X., Gazibegovic, S., Xu, D., Logan, J. A., Wang, G., ... Kouwenhoven, L. P. (2018). Quantized Majorana conductance. Nature, 556(7699), 74-79. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature26142
Zhang, Hao ; Liu, Chun Xiao ; Gazibegovic, Sasa ; Xu, Di ; Logan, John A. ; Wang, Guanzhong ; Van Loo, Nick ; Bommer, Jouri D.S. ; de Moor, Michiel W.A. ; Car, Diana ; Op het Veld, Roy L.M. ; van Veldhoven, Petrus J. ; Koelling, Sebastian ; Verheijen, Marcel A. ; Pendharkar, Mihir ; Pennachio, Daniel J. ; Shojaei, Borzoyeh ; Lee, Joon Sue ; Palmstrøm, Chris J. ; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M. ; Sarma, S. Das ; Kouwenhoven, Leo P. / Quantized Majorana conductance. In: Nature. 2018 ; Vol. 556, No. 7699. pp. 74-79.
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abstract = "Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e 2 /h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e 2 /h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e 2 /h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e 2 /h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.",
author = "Hao Zhang and Liu, {Chun Xiao} and Sasa Gazibegovic and Di Xu and Logan, {John A.} and Guanzhong Wang and {Van Loo}, Nick and Bommer, {Jouri D.S.} and {de Moor}, {Michiel W.A.} and Diana Car and {Op het Veld}, {Roy L.M.} and {van Veldhoven}, {Petrus J.} and Sebastian Koelling and Verheijen, {Marcel A.} and Mihir Pendharkar and Pennachio, {Daniel J.} and Borzoyeh Shojaei and Lee, {Joon Sue} and Palmstr{\o}m, {Chris J.} and Bakkers, {Erik P.A.M.} and Sarma, {S. Das} and Kouwenhoven, {Leo P.}",
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Zhang, H, Liu, CX, Gazibegovic, S, Xu, D, Logan, JA, Wang, G, Van Loo, N, Bommer, JDS, de Moor, MWA, Car, D, Op het Veld, RLM, van Veldhoven, PJ, Koelling, S, Verheijen, MA, Pendharkar, M, Pennachio, DJ, Shojaei, B, Lee, JS, Palmstrøm, CJ, Bakkers, EPAM, Sarma, SD & Kouwenhoven, LP 2018, 'Quantized Majorana conductance', Nature, vol. 556, no. 7699, pp. 74-79. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature26142

Quantized Majorana conductance. / Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; Van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D.S.; de Moor, Michiel W.A.; Car, Diana; Op het Veld, Roy L.M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

In: Nature, Vol. 556, No. 7699, 05.04.2018, p. 74-79.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Zhang, Hao

AU - Liu, Chun Xiao

AU - Gazibegovic, Sasa

AU - Xu, Di

AU - Logan, John A.

AU - Wang, Guanzhong

AU - Van Loo, Nick

AU - Bommer, Jouri D.S.

AU - de Moor, Michiel W.A.

AU - Car, Diana

AU - Op het Veld, Roy L.M.

AU - van Veldhoven, Petrus J.

AU - Koelling, Sebastian

AU - Verheijen, Marcel A.

AU - Pendharkar, Mihir

AU - Pennachio, Daniel J.

AU - Shojaei, Borzoyeh

AU - Lee, Joon Sue

AU - Palmstrøm, Chris J.

AU - Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.

AU - Sarma, S. Das

AU - Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

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N2 - Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e 2 /h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e 2 /h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e 2 /h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e 2 /h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

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Zhang H, Liu CX, Gazibegovic S, Xu D, Logan JA, Wang G et al. Quantized Majorana conductance. Nature. 2018 Apr 5;556(7699):74-79. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature26142