QFM: quenching flamelet-generated manifold for modelling of flame–wall interactions

Denis V. Efimov (Corresponding author), Philip de Goey, Jeroen A. van Oijen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
124 Downloads (Pure)


This work introduces a new method to improve the accuracy of the flamelet-generated manifold (FGM) method under conditions of flame–wall interactions (FWI). Special attention is given to the prediction of the pollutant CO. In existing FGM methods, in order to account for heat loss, usually flamelets with constant enthalpy are utilised. These constant enthalpy flamelets used to generate the manifold, do not include the effects of wall heat loss on the manifold composition, resulting in simulation inaccuracies in the near-wall region, where large enthalpy gradients are present. To address this issue, the idea to utilise 1D head on quenching (HOQ) flamelets for tabulated chemistry is adopted and applied here in the context of the FGM method. The HOQ qualitatively resembles the general phenomena of FWI. However, the rates of wall heat loss and the accompanied effects on the chemical species composition may quantitatively differ between various FWI configurations. In addition, the magnitude of heat transfer rate may vary in space and time in general configurations. Therefore, in this work, a method is introduced to generate a 3D manifold, based on multiple HOQ-like flamelets, that includes the variation of the rate of heat loss as an extra table dimension. This dimension is parametrised by a second reaction progress variable for which a transport equation is solved next to the equations for enthalpy and the first progress variable. The new developed method, referred to as Quenching Flamelet-generated Manifold (QFM), is described in this work. Further, the method is validated against detailed chemistry simulations of a two-dimensional premixed laminar side-wall quenching of a methane-air flame. A comparison is presented, analysing the performance obtained using the existing 2D FGM method, a 2D QFM that is based on a single HOQ flamelet which does not account for a varying rate of wall heat loss and a 3D QFM, which does. Finally, it is shown that the 3D QFM tabulated chemistry simulation yields a very good level of accuracy and that the accuracy for prediction of CO concentrations near the wall is improved tremendously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-104
Number of pages33
JournalCombustion Theory and Modelling
Issue number1
Early online date29 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2020


  • additional chemical time scales
  • flame modelling
  • flamelet-generated manifold (FGM)
  • flame–wall interaction
  • prediction of emissions
  • reduced chemistry
  • side-wall quenching
  • flame-wall interaction


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