￼Proximity, knowledge base and the innovation process: towards an integrated framework. Regional Studies. The proximity concept refers to types of inter-organizational relationships that are expected to facilitate interactive learning and collaborative innovation. Different forms of proximity include geographical, cognitive, social, institutional and organizational proximity. This paper argues that the relative importance of each proximity dimension depends on the type of knowledge being produced. It distinguishes between analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowledge, the intensity of which in turn varies with research, development and marketing stages of new product development. The case study of Unilever’s Becel diet margarine serves as a first example of such an integrated framework.
- multinational enterprise
- science-based industries