Projection operator formalism and entropy

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    The entropy definition is deduced by means of (re)deriving the generalized non-linear Langevin equation using Zwanzig projector operator formalism. It is shown to be necessarily related to an invariant measure which, in classical mechanics, can always be taken to be the Liouville measure. It is not true that one is free to choose a \"relevant\" probability d. independently as is done in other flavors of projection operator formalism. This observation induces an entropy expression which is valid also outside the thermodn. limit and in far from equil. situations. The Zwanzig projection operator formalism therefore gives a deductive derivation of non-equil., and equil., thermodn. The entropy definition found is closely related to the (generalized) microcanonical Boltzmann-Planck definition but with some subtle differences. No \"shell thickness\" arguments are needed, nor desirable, for a rigorous definition. The entropy expression depends on the choice of macroscopic variables and does not exactly transform as a scalar quantity. The relation with expressions used in the GENERIC formalism are discussed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationLos Alamos National Laboratory
    Place of PublicationCondensed Matter
    Publication statusPublished - 2007


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