Biomolecular motors can pull and viscously drag membranes. The resulting elongations include cell protrusions, tether networks, and sensorial tentacles. Here we focus on the extraction of a single tube from a vesicle. Via a force balance coupled to binding kinetics, we analytically determine the phase diagram of tube formation as function of the motor processivity, the surface viscosity of the membrane ¿m', and the density of motors on the vesicle ¿. Three tubulation mechanisms are identified: (i) tip pulling, due to the accumulation of motors at the leading edge of the membrane, (ii) viscous drag, emergent from the translation of motors along the tube, and (iii) hybrid extraction, such that tip pulling and viscous drag are equally important. For experimental values of ¿m' and ¿, we find that the growth of bionanotubes tends to be driven by viscous forces, whereas artificial membranes are dominated by tip pulling.
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|