Processes and patterns in transitions and system innovations: Refining the co-evolutionary multi-level perspective

F.W. Geels

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    398 Citations (Scopus)
    3 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    This article investigates transitions at the level of societal functions (e.g., transport, communication, housing). Societal functions are fulfilled by sociotechnical systems, which consist of a cluster of aligned elements, e.g., artifacts, knowledge, markets, regulation, cultural meaning, infrastructure, maintenance networks and supply networks. Transitions are conceptualised as system innovations, i.e., a change from one sociotechnical system to another. The article describes a co-evolutionary multi-level perspective to understand how system innovations come about through the interplay between technology and society. The article makes a new step as it further refines the multi-level perspective by distinguishing characteristic patterns: (a) two transition routes, (b) fit–stretch pattern, and (c) patterns in breakthrough.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)681-696
    Number of pages16
    JournalTechnological Forecasting and Social Change
    Volume72
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

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