Background: Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative disease of palmar fascias of the hand. The prevalence of Dupuytren disease and the association with potential risk factors have been the subject of several studies, although there is a paucity of such data from The Netherlands. Methods: To study the prevalence of Dupuytren disease, the authors drew a random sample of 1360 individuals, stratified by age, from the northern part of The Netherlands. Of this sample, 763 individuals aged 50 to 89 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The authors examined both hands for signs of Dupuytren disease, and a questionnaire was conducted to identify potential risk factors. The effects of these risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Additional analyses were performed to develop a logistic prediction model for the prevalence of Dupuytren disease. Results: The prevalence of Dupuytren disease was 22.1 percent. Nodules and cords were seen in 17.9 percent, and flexion contractures were present in 4.2 percent of the study population. Prevalence increased with age, from 4.9 percent in participants aged 50 to 55 years to 52.6 percent among those aged 76 to 80 years. Men were more often affected than women; 26.4 percent versus 18.6 percent, respectively (p = 0.007). Other significant risk factors were previous hand injury, excessive alcohol consumption, familial occurrence of Dupuytren disease, and presence of Ledderhose disease. Conclusions: The results show a high prevalence of Dupuytren disease in The Netherlands, particularly the nodular form. Using the developed logistic prediction model, the prevalence of Dupuytren disease can be estimated, based on the presence of significant risk factors.