Predicting breast tumor proliferation from whole-slide images: The TUPAC16 challenge

Mitko Veta (Corresponding author), Yujing J. Heng, Nikolas Stathonikos, Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Francisco Beca, Thomas Wollmann, Karl Rohr, Manan A. Shah, Dayong Wang, Mikael Rousson, Martin Hedlund, David Tellez, Francesco Ciompi, Erwan Zerhouni, David Lanyi, Matheus Viana, Vassili Kovalev, Vitali Liauchuk, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Talha QaiserSimon Graham, Nasir Rajpoot, Erik Sjöblom, Jesper Molin, Kyunghyun Paeng, Sangheum Hwang, Sunggyun Park, Zhipeng Jia, Eric I-Chao Chang, Yan Xu, Andrew H. Beck, Paul J. van Diest, Josien P.W. Pluim

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Abstract

Tumor proliferation is an important biomarker indicative of the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Assessment of tumor proliferation in a clinical setting is a highly subjective and labor-intensive task. Previous efforts to automate tumor proliferation assessment by image analysis only focused on mitosis detection in predefined tumor regions. However, in a real-world scenario, automatic mitosis detection should be performed in whole-slide images (WSIs) and an automatic method should be able to produce a tumor proliferation score given a WSI as input. To address this, we organized the TUmor Proliferation Assessment Challenge 2016 (TUPAC16) on prediction of tumor proliferation scores from WSIs. The challenge dataset consisted of 500 training and 321 testing breast cancer histopathology WSIs. In order to ensure fair and independent evaluation, only the ground truth for the training dataset was provided to the challenge participants. The first task of the challenge was to predict mitotic scores, i.e., to reproduce the manual method of assessing tumor proliferation by a pathologist. The second task was to predict the gene expression based PAM50 proliferation scores from the WSI. The best performing automatic method for the first task achieved a quadratic-weighted Cohen's kappa score of κ = 0.567, 95% CI [0.464, 0.671] between the predicted scores and the ground truth. For the second task, the predictions of the top method had a Spearman's correlation coefficient of r = 0.617, 95% CI [0.581 0.651] with the ground truth. This was the first comparison study that investigated tumor proliferation assessment from WSIs. The achieved results are promising given the difficulty of the tasks and weakly-labeled nature of the ground truth. However, further research is needed to improve the practical utility of image analysis methods for this task.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-121
Number of pages11
JournalMedical Image Analysis
Volume54
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2019

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Cancer prognostication
  • Deep learning
  • Tumor proliferation

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    Veta, M., Heng, Y. J., Stathonikos, N., Bejnordi, B. E., Beca, F., Wollmann, T., Rohr, K., Shah, M. A., Wang, D., Rousson, M., Hedlund, M., Tellez, D., Ciompi, F., Zerhouni, E., Lanyi, D., Viana, M., Kovalev, V., Liauchuk, V., Phoulady, H. A., ... Pluim, J. P. W. (2019). Predicting breast tumor proliferation from whole-slide images: The TUPAC16 challenge. Medical Image Analysis, 54, 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2019.02.012