Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of nickel oxide as hole transport layer for hybrid perovskite solar cells

Dibyashree Koushik (Corresponding author), Marko Jošt, A. Dučinskas, Claire Burgess, V. Zardetto, Christ Weijtens, Marcel Verheijen, Erwin Kessels, Steve Albrecht, Adriana Creatore (Corresponding author)

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Abstract

Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers significant merits in terms of processing uniform, conformal and pinhole-free thin films, with sub-nanometer thickness control. In this work, plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel oxide (NiO) is carried out by adopting bis-methylcyclopentadienyl-nickel (Ni(MeCp)2) as precursor and O2 plasma as co-reactant, over a wide table temperature range of 50-300 °C. A growth rate of 0.32 Å per cycle is obtained for films deposited at 150 °C with an excellent thickness uniformity on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Bulk characteristics of the NiO film together with its interfacial properties with a triple cation hybrid perovskite absorber layer are comprehensively investigated, with the aim of integrating NiO as hole transport layer (HTL) in a p-i-n perovskite solar cell (PSC) architecture. It is concluded that “key” to efficient solar cell performance is the post-annealing treatment of the ALD NiO films in air, prior to perovskite synthesis. Post-annealing leads to better wettability of the perovskite layer and increased conductivity and mobility of the NiO films, delivering an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) in the fabricated devices. Overall, a superior 17.07% PCE is achieved in the post-annealed NiO-based PSC when compared to the 13.98% PCE derived from the one with pristine NiO
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12532-12543
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Volume7
Issue number40
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sep 2019

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Nickel oxide
Atomic layer deposition
Plasmas
Perovskite
Oxide films
Annealing
Thickness control
Perovskite solar cells
nickel monoxide
Nickel
Silicon wafers
Short circuit currents
Wetting
Cations
Solar cells
Current density
Positive ions
Thin films
Temperature
Processing

Cite this

@article{082499315ab145609aa352d45b25d81f,
title = "Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of nickel oxide as hole transport layer for hybrid perovskite solar cells",
abstract = "Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers significant merits in terms of processing uniform, conformal and pinhole-free thin films, with sub-nanometer thickness control. In this work, plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel oxide (NiO) is carried out by adopting bis-methylcyclopentadienyl-nickel (Ni(MeCp)2) as precursor and O2 plasma as co-reactant, over a wide table temperature range of 50-300 °C. A growth rate of 0.32 {\AA} per cycle is obtained for films deposited at 150 °C with an excellent thickness uniformity on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Bulk characteristics of the NiO film together with its interfacial properties with a triple cation hybrid perovskite absorber layer are comprehensively investigated, with the aim of integrating NiO as hole transport layer (HTL) in a p-i-n perovskite solar cell (PSC) architecture. It is concluded that “key” to efficient solar cell performance is the post-annealing treatment of the ALD NiO films in air, prior to perovskite synthesis. Post-annealing leads to better wettability of the perovskite layer and increased conductivity and mobility of the NiO films, delivering an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) in the fabricated devices. Overall, a superior 17.07{\%} PCE is achieved in the post-annealed NiO-based PSC when compared to the 13.98{\%} PCE derived from the one with pristine NiO",
author = "Dibyashree Koushik and Marko Jošt and A. Dučinskas and Claire Burgess and V. Zardetto and Christ Weijtens and Marcel Verheijen and Erwin Kessels and Steve Albrecht and Adriana Creatore",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1039/C9TC04282B",
language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of nickel oxide as hole transport layer for hybrid perovskite solar cells

AU - Koushik, Dibyashree

AU - Jošt, Marko

AU - Dučinskas, A.

AU - Burgess, Claire

AU - Zardetto, V.

AU - Weijtens, Christ

AU - Verheijen, Marcel

AU - Kessels, Erwin

AU - Albrecht, Steve

AU - Creatore, Adriana

PY - 2019/9/17

Y1 - 2019/9/17

N2 - Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers significant merits in terms of processing uniform, conformal and pinhole-free thin films, with sub-nanometer thickness control. In this work, plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel oxide (NiO) is carried out by adopting bis-methylcyclopentadienyl-nickel (Ni(MeCp)2) as precursor and O2 plasma as co-reactant, over a wide table temperature range of 50-300 °C. A growth rate of 0.32 Å per cycle is obtained for films deposited at 150 °C with an excellent thickness uniformity on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Bulk characteristics of the NiO film together with its interfacial properties with a triple cation hybrid perovskite absorber layer are comprehensively investigated, with the aim of integrating NiO as hole transport layer (HTL) in a p-i-n perovskite solar cell (PSC) architecture. It is concluded that “key” to efficient solar cell performance is the post-annealing treatment of the ALD NiO films in air, prior to perovskite synthesis. Post-annealing leads to better wettability of the perovskite layer and increased conductivity and mobility of the NiO films, delivering an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) in the fabricated devices. Overall, a superior 17.07% PCE is achieved in the post-annealed NiO-based PSC when compared to the 13.98% PCE derived from the one with pristine NiO

AB - Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers significant merits in terms of processing uniform, conformal and pinhole-free thin films, with sub-nanometer thickness control. In this work, plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel oxide (NiO) is carried out by adopting bis-methylcyclopentadienyl-nickel (Ni(MeCp)2) as precursor and O2 plasma as co-reactant, over a wide table temperature range of 50-300 °C. A growth rate of 0.32 Å per cycle is obtained for films deposited at 150 °C with an excellent thickness uniformity on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Bulk characteristics of the NiO film together with its interfacial properties with a triple cation hybrid perovskite absorber layer are comprehensively investigated, with the aim of integrating NiO as hole transport layer (HTL) in a p-i-n perovskite solar cell (PSC) architecture. It is concluded that “key” to efficient solar cell performance is the post-annealing treatment of the ALD NiO films in air, prior to perovskite synthesis. Post-annealing leads to better wettability of the perovskite layer and increased conductivity and mobility of the NiO films, delivering an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) in the fabricated devices. Overall, a superior 17.07% PCE is achieved in the post-annealed NiO-based PSC when compared to the 13.98% PCE derived from the one with pristine NiO

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SN - 2050-7526

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