Picoliter drop-on-demand dispensing for multiplex liquid cell transmission Electron microscopy

J.P. Patterson, L.R. Parent, J. Cantlon, H. Eickhoff, G. Bared, J.E. Evans, N.C. Gianneschi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-514
Number of pages8
JournalMicroscopy and Microanalysis
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 12 Feb 2016


  • dispensing organic non-organic solutions
  • grid loading
  • liquid cell transmission electron microscopy
  • TEM sample preparation


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