Photoacoustic perfusion measurements: a comparison with Power Doppler in phantoms

H.M. Heres, M. Arabul, B.C.Y. Tchang, F.N. van de Vosse, M.C.M. Rutten, R.G.P. Lopata

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Ultrasound-based measurements using Doppler, contrast, and more recently photoacoustics (PA), have emerged as techniques for tissue perfusion measurements. In this study, the feasibility of in vitro perfusion measurements with a fully integrated, hand-held, photoacoustic probe was investigated and compared to Power Doppler (PD). Three cylindrical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) phantoms were made (diameter = 15 mm) containing 100, 200 and 400 parallel polysulfone tubes (diameter = 0.2 mm), resulting in a perfused cross-sectional area of 1.8, 3.6 and 7.1% respectively. Each phantom was perfused with porcine blood (15 mL/min). Cross-sectional PA images (λ = 805nm, frame rate = 10Hz) and PD images (PRF = 750Hz) were acquired with a MyLab One and MyLab 70 scanner (Esaote, NL), respectively. Data were averaged over 70 frames. The average PA signal intensity was calculated in a region-of-interest of 4 mm by 6 mm. The percentage of colored PD pixels was measured in the entire phantom region. The average signal intensity of the PA images increased linearly with perfusion density, being 0.54 (± 0.01), 0.56 (± 0.01), 0.58 (± 0.01) with an average background signal of 0.53 in the three phantoms, respectively. For PD, the percentage of colored pixels in the phantom area (1.5% (± 0.2%), 4.4% (± 0.2%), 13.7% (± 0.8%)) also increased linearly. The preliminary results suggest that PA, like PD, is capable of detecting an increase of blood volume in tissue. In the future, in vivo measurements will be explored, although validation will be more complex.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)9781628414134
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 8 Feb 201510 Feb 2015

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE


ConferencePhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Perfusion
  • Phantom
  • Photoacoustic imaging
  • Power Doppler


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