Performance and control of optimized shear discharges in JET

A. Bécoulet, L.-G. Eriksson, Y.F. Baranov, D.N. Borba, C.D. Challis, G.D. Conway, V. Fuchs, C. Gormezano, C.W. Gowers, N.C. Hawkes, T.C. Hender, G.T.A. Huysmans, E. Joffrin, X. Litaudon, P.J. Lomas, A. Maas, M.L. Mayoral, V.V. Parail, F.G. Rimini, F. RochardY. Sarazin, A.C.C. Sips, F. X. Söldner, K.-D. Zastrow, W.P. Zwingman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High performance discharges are routinely obtained on JET with low or reversed magnetic shear (s = (r/q)dq/dr), and the potential for steady state operation of such discharges is under investigation. With the use of the proper heating and fuelling, these `optimized shear' (OS) discharges exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), resulting in a strong peaking of the pressure profile, and thus in high fusion performance. These regimes have been extensively studied during the last (DD and DT) JET campaigns in order to promote this type of scenario as the basis for `advanced tokamak' operation. A review is given of the highest performance achieved on JET OS discharges during the last experimental campaigns, in both DD (up to 5.6 × 1016neutrons/s) and DT operation (fusion power up to 8.2 MW, ni0Ti0τE up to 1021 m-3 keV s). The role of the plasma edge is pointed out, as the power required to trigger an ITB is often higher than the H mode power threshold, leading to double barrier regimes. The presence of an H mode pedestal both modifies the ITB and induces edge bootstrap and ELM activity, which should be controlled to prolong such discharges. The operational procedure of optimization is then discussed, addressing the problems of ITB formation (power threshold, timing of the main heating phase, i.e. optimization of the target q profile, influence of the heating scheme, electron versus ion ITBs), ITB evolution (expansion of the ITB footpoint, H mode formation) and ITB termination (disruptive and/or `soft' MHD limits). Finally, the crucial problem of the route to steady state for such OS discharges is addressed, both in terms of ITB sustainment and control within the stability domain and in terms of edge pedestal control by means of impurity injection. The impurity behaviour is found, and examples of high performance discharges sustained for several energy confinement times are given (βN = 1.95, H89 = 2.3, Pfusioneq~10 MW, QDTeq~0.4 sustained for ~3 s). Extrapolation towards fully non-inductive current drive is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1113-1123
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2000
Externally publishedYes

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